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Successful Treatment of Tetanus in a ND Goat - a case report

 Dr.Pon.Dhanavel, B.V.Sc.,
Veterinary Assistant surgeon,  Veterinary Dispensary, Kabilarmalai, Namakkal Dt.  Mobile:  94436 78967

Introduction :
                Tetanus – is a infectious disease caused by the Toxins produced by the Gram +ve organism Clostridium tetani , characterized by spasmodic contractions of Skeletal muscles.

Occurrence  :
                Most commonly occurs in lambs, kids, calves and rarely occurs in adult animals.

Pathogenesis :
                The Spores of Clostridium tetani are commonly prevalent in soil, get entry into the animals through wounds, germination of spores occurs in anaerobic environment, produces toxins which causes spasmodic contractions and Stiffness of all Skeletal muscles prominently in masseter muscles ( Muscle of maximum activity in ruminants ) leading to Wooden Horse appearance and Lock Jaw. Finally death occurs due to asphyxiation.

Prognosis :
                In advanced cases, the prognosis is Guarded.

Present Study :
                A Goat ( Doe ), Non-Descriptive, first Kidding, kidded 45 days back, having body weight of 25 kg, was presented with the Symptoms of Stiffness and Rigidity of all four limbs, neck ( unable to turn any direction ), unable to open mouth, Stiffness of Intercostal and Abdominal muscles and absence of Rumination. Defecation and Urination were normal in nature but, the frequency and quantity was reduced. Mild tympany of Rumen noticed. These symptoms were developed since 2 days. On observation, no external wounds were found. The animal is on Standing Posture and had restricted walkig with stiff gait.

Treatments followed :

Day – 1
·        Liquid Paraffin-200ml  intra-ruminally  using 16G needle - for reducing tympany as well as for  laxative effect to expel the Intestinal contents which may contain / favour organisms.
( Oral drenching was not possible due to Lock-Jaw )
·        Inj. Normal Saline – 250 ml i/v – to dilute the circulating Toxins.
·        Inj. Oxytetracycline LA – 2.5ml i/m & Inj. Benzathine Penicillin – 12 lac i/m – to control Bacterial multiplication & production of toxins.
·        Inj. Flunixin – 50 mg i/v and Inj. Tribivet – 2.5 ml i/v  - as anti-inflammatory, to control endotoxicosis and as Supporive therapy.

Day – 2       - Mouth could be opened partially. Mild improvement noticed
·        Inj. Normal Saline – 250 ml i/v
·        Inj. Tribivet – 2.5 ml i/v 
·        Bolus. Doloban Plus Vet ( Nimesulide-500mg, Paracetamol- 1500mg & Chlorzoxazone – a centrally acting Muscle Relaxant ) – 1/8 part of a Bolus administered orally .
Day – 3      - Modeartely improved, able to lying down and getting up.

·                Inj. Normal Saline – 250 ml i/v
·                Inj. Tribivet – 2.5 ml i/v 
·                Bolus. Doloban Plus Vet - 1/8 part of a Bolus administered orally .

Day – 4     -  Rumination started, Mild feed & Water intake noticed.
·               Inj. Oxytetracycline LA – 2.5ml i/m
·               Inj. Benzathine Penicillin – 12 lac i/m
·                Inj. Normal Saline – 250 ml i/v
·                Inj. Tribivet – 2.5 ml i/v 
·                Bolus. Doloban Plus Vet - 1/8 part of a Bolus administered orally .

Day – 5     -  Animal improved Well
·                Inj. Normal Saline – 250 ml i/v
·                Inj. Tribivet – 2.5 ml i/v 
·                Bolus. Doloban Plus Vet - 1/8 part of a Bolus administered orally .

Day – 6   
·         Repated Treatments of day - 5

Day - 7
·        Repated Treatments of day – 5

From 8th Day, the health of the animal was near normal and complete recovery noticed on 11th day .

Conclusion :
Tetanus in early stages ( while on standing posture ) can be treated with the above mentioned treatment protocol and Chlorzoxazone is doing a great action to relax the contracted stiff skeletal muscles.

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Dystocia due to Dicephalus Foetus

          A puluriparous HFcross cow with the history of unable to deliver the foetus even after 4 hours after the rupture of both water bags.They took their cows to local Vet, on per vaginal examination he came to know that there was a abnormal foetus inside the womb. He refered it to vet.poly clinic Madurai.


             A special call from the vet poly clinic, I went and careful vaginal examination
was carried out. On examination there was a dead foetus with double head, one head 
was right angle to another head in the shape of “L”.(photo).Then prompt decision 
was taken to conduct cesarean.(Lapro hystrotomy)


        1. Atmost important is before doing operation the animal should be stabilized. 
Most of the post operative failures were due to lack of preoperative care. For that 
we have to stabilize the animal by giving fluids, preoperative broad spectrum
antibiotics and analgesic by I/V route 2-4 hours before operation.

        2. Selection of site:
              On foetus site ie by doing external palpation at left lower flank the foetal 
mass can be find out and the oblique incision can be made on the site. Mostly the site 
will fall on left lower flank between a straight horizontal line from the stifle joint and 
10-15cm away from mid ventral line laterally.
             Advantage of selection of this site
       1. Easy access of foetus.
2. Less internal organs manipulation.
3. Avoid prolapse of internal organs.
4. Less/small operative opening is enough.
5. Lesser thickness of muscles in that site for easy suturing
6. And avoid soiling.

( Preferable site - On foetus site,
  Preferable Side - Left side lower flank,
  Incission type - Oblique)

        3. Preparation of the site:
                Left side lower flank, on foetus site was prepared for operation 

        4. Anaesthesia:
                1. The epidural anaesthesia with 5ml of Lignocane 2% solution.
                2. The local infiltration anaesthesia with 30 ml of 2% lignocaine in the form
of inverted "L" block.

        5. Lapro-hysterotomy:
                1. After desensitizing the area as per the standard procedure the skin, 
muscles and the uterus were incised.
                2. The anomaly foetus was removed through the incision.
                3. The suturing of the uterine muscles using 2 size absorbable chromic 
catgut adopting cushing and lembert method of suturing.
                4. The peritoneum and the muscles were sutured separately using 2 size 
chromic catgut adopting horizontal mattress and continuous lock stitch.
                5. The skin was sutured using silk threat adopting cross matters.
                       - Skin suturing is very toughest job to easing we used 18 G needle( 
puncturing the skin with hypodermic needle and inserting the suture needle in to the
18G Needle by this way we can complete  skin suture.)
                       - Apply Pendistrin-SH on the suture line of the uterus to avoid 
adhesion with surroundings.
                       - Infuse 5gm of diluted Streptopenicillin intra peritonially to avoid

Post Operative Care:
              1.I/V Fliuds of 5 bottles of DNS was given for 5 days.
              2.3gms of Ceftifur was given I/m for 5 days.
              3.15ml of Meloxicam was given I/m for 3 days.
              4.10ml of Antihistamine was given I/m for 3 days.
              5.Third day onwards in addition to the above medicines
                   a)      Inj.AD3 10ml was given I/m for 1 day.
                   b)      Inj.Phosphorous 15ml was given I/m for 1 day.
                   c)      Inj.Bcomplex with Liver extract 10ml I/m for 3 days.
                   d)      Bol.TRP 2 in numbers oid for 2 days.
                   e)      po.Rumicare 1 pocket oid for 1 day.         


Dr.R.Kalirajan M.V.Sc., (O&G)
( Mobile: 99436 15552 )
Veterinary Asst.Surgeon,
Veterinary Dispensary,
S.Melapatti, Madurai Dt – 625 703.

Herbal Treatment for Post Partum Blood in Milk

        Nearly 43 post partum primi and pluriparous cows with the history of blood in milk was taken. Milk color may vary from rose (mild case)to red (severe case) and even sometime raw blood may come out from the teats. On physical examination, the udder was normal (without mastitis).

      Due to the asthetic appearance  of milk  the entire milk should be discarded resulting in economic loss and mental agony to the farmers.


        1. Apart from our routine modern chemotherapy with Enrofloxin, Adchrome, Avil, Antiinflamatory, Calcium preparations, the amazing result was obtained by giving a CRICKET BALL size of ground fresh CURRY (கருவேப்பிலை) LEAVES  mixed with juice of 6 to 7 LEMON FRUIT  twice in a day.
          2. For mild case the above curry leaves and lemon juice Bid for one day.
          3. For severe case the above treatment should be given for 4-5 days Bid.

       The active principles in the curry leaves and lemon juice may act on the blood vessels  resulting in constriction of blood vessel.(Act as styptics)


Dr.R.Kalirajan M.V.Sc., (O&G)
( Mobile: 99436 15552 )
Veterinary Asst.Surgeon,
Veterinary Dispensary,
S.Melapatti, Madurai Dt – 625 703.

Treatment of Warts through Auto-Immunization

         In this study nearly 15 cows with thorny like warts in the teats with different severity which hinder milking process and also annoyance to milk man and to owner.
Goats 3 in numbers which have pedunculated raised bleeding warts present all over the body was also taken for this trail.
            1.Easy to carry out at field level.
            2.No need of centrifuging the raw blood & take serum for therapy.

Materials Needed:
            1. 20ml disposable syringe   - 2
            2. 18 G Needle                     - 2

          Based on the severity of warts all the cows were divided into Mild, Moderate and severe.

     1. Thorny warts are few in numbers in the teats.
   2.Take 30ml of raw blood (15ml in one syringe and another 15 ml in another syringe) from the jugular vein of the same cow using sterile disposable syringes.
     3.Give 15ml of the blood intra muscularly immediately.
     4.Give another 15ml of blood subcutaneously to the same cow.
     5.Ask  the owner to bring the cow next week on the same day.
    6.On physical clinical examination you can see the 50% of the warts were sloughed off leaving whitish scar on that areas and the remaining showed dark blackish color indicating necrosis.
     7.Now give the second injection of the same dose of blood on the same route.
    8.Ask to bring the cow on third week. You can see all the warts were completely sloughed off.


     1. The procedure is same but the dosage of blood is 40ml.
     2. 20ml of blood I/M and 20ml of blood S/C.
     3. Need third injection.
     4. You can see all the warts sloughed off after third week of treatment.

Severe case:(4-5 SITTING THERAPY)
    1.The procedure is same, the dose is also same as above group (i.e. 40ml) but the duration/course of the treatment is 4 to 5 weeks.
    2.After fifth week of treatment you can seen the entire warts were sloughed off completely.

For the Goats 20ml of raw blood was drawn and inject 10ml I/M and 10ml S/C.


           All we know that the causative agent for the warts is virus. Taking serum (or) grinding of warts tissue for therapy is difficult procedure at field level. Hence I hope that this kind of treatment is very useful to field Vets.


Dr.R.Kalirajan M.V.Sc., (O&G)
( Mobile: 99436 15552 )
Veterinary Asst.Surgeon,
Veterinary Dispensary,
S.Melapatti, Madurai Dt – 625 703.

Oestrus Synchronisation with CIDR

Selection of Animals:

1.    Non-pregnant  heifers, cows and buffaloes (calved >2 months before)
2.    Healthy cows, buffaloes and heifers with good body condition and growth.
3.    Cows with normal reproductive tract.
4.    Cows and buffaloes not shown heat signs even after 3 months of calving.
5.    Cows not conceived after 2 or 3 AI/NS.

   Ensure that the animal is not pregnant from reproductive history and rectal examination. Exam for pregnancy 2 times with 15-30 days apart for the presence of amniotic vesicles, fluid feeling, dissimilar uterine horns, double slipping, fetal bump, placentomes etc.

Procedure for Oestrus Synchronisation:
Action 1:    Examine rectally for pregnancy.
    Deworm with 1.5 to 3g of fenbendazole (as single dose) depending on body weight.
    Provide 1Kg of mineral mixture with suitable advice (30g/day)
    Advice the owner to feed well with concentrate and green fooder.

Action 2:    Examine rectally for pregnancy.

Steps Involved in CIDR Application:

1.    Wash the external genitalia with tap water.
2.    After loading CIDR, apply povidone iodine over applicator.
3.    Wipe external genitalia with povidone iodine.
4.    Evert the vulval lips and gently insert applicator (the nylon wire on ventral side) with CIDR to the maximum extent possible.
5.    Release the CIDR by pushing the piston (While pushing the piston, the applicator will tend to come back and the CIDR might protrude outside. Avoid this by keeping forward pressure on the stem).
6.    Cut the excess nylon wire leaving 2-3”.
7.    On the day of withdrawal, simply pull the nylon wire.
8 &9 In between applications, wash the applicator in a bucket of water mixed with antiseptic.

Mechanism of Action:
Prostaglandin  is commonly used in both cow and heifer synchronization protocols. Prostaglandins are effective in synchronizing heat only if females are cycling, but they are not effective on all days of the estrous cycle. Prostaglandin injected between day 5 and 20 of the estrous cycle regresses the corpus luteum (CL). It can be used as the sole hormone administered to cattle for synchronization purposes. However, timed insemination protocols require additional hormones.
Progesterone is administered via a vaginal insert of a progesterone-containing device (CIDR®; Controlled Internal Drug Release). Progesterone can induce some noncycling females, including prepubertal heifers, to cycle and improve their chances of conceiving. Administration of a progestesterone inhibits heat and blocks ovulation, serving as an “artificial” CL

-Dr.R.V.Vijayakumar M.V.Sc. (LPM)